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Strive to Win New Advantages in Development -- On the Advantages of the Socialist System with Chinese Characteristics from the Construction of Major Projects

Release time:

2023-11-10 16:47

 

奋力赢得发展新优势——从重大工程建设看中国特色社会主义制度优势

 

“嫦娥”落月、“天问”探火、神舟飞天、高铁奔驰、C919首飞、南水北调、“西电东送”……从南海之滨到北国雪原,从东部沿海到西北内陆,一个个重大工程相继问世,一项项发展成就硕果累累,汇聚成一幅波澜壮阔的时代画卷。

 

 

党的十八大以来,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,我国重大工程建设稳步推进。习近平总书记强调:“我们最大的优势是我国社会主义制度能够集中力量办大事。这是我们成就事业的重要法宝。”

 

 

 

 

 

 

2022年9月2日在北京航天飞行控制中心拍摄的神舟十四号航天员刘洋(左)结束出舱任务正在返回的画面。 新华社发(李杰摄)

 

 

一路行来,大国工程的每一次突破、每一步跨越都体现了中国工程建设的雄厚实力,彰显了中国精神和中国力量,更充分揭示了习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想的实践伟力和我国社会主义制度集中力量办大事的独特优势。

 

 

 

 

 

 

这是玉兔二号巡视器全景相机对嫦娥四号着陆器成像。 新华社发(国家航天局供图)

 

 

在党的集中统一领导下凝聚奋进力量

 

 

秋日的伶仃洋,粤港澳大湾区核心交通枢纽深中通道岛隧工程施工海域一片热火朝天的景象。这个集“桥、岛、隧、水下互通”于一体的世界级超级工程,将在两年后连通隔海相望的中山市和深圳市,勾连起粤港澳大湾区的生机与活力。

 

 

“中国天眼”落成启用、“华龙一号”核电机组投入商业运行、复兴号动车组开上青藏高原……党的十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央高瞻远瞩、统筹谋划,我国重大工程建设取得了一系列具有重大现实意义和深远历史意义的成就,为我国成为有世界影响的大国奠定了重要基础。

 

 

 

 

 

 

这是“中国天眼”全景(2022年7月21日摄,维护保养期间拍摄,无人机照片)。 新华社记者 欧东衢 摄

 

 

10年间,各级党组织坚定不移把党中央各项决策部署落到实处,充分彰显党的政治领导力、统筹协调力和强大执行力。

 

 

乌东德、白鹤滩工程地质复杂、气候恶劣,综合建造难度居世界前列。中国三峡建工集团党委所属的乌东德、白鹤滩基层党组织联合参建单位广泛开展党员红旗岗、党员先锋号、党员攻关小组等活动,攻克了一系列水电工程重大技术难关;滇中引水工程施工中,各参建单位以党建引领为龙头,把党建引领与施工生产紧密结合,不断增强基层党组织的战斗堡垒作用,提质提速打造精品水利工程……

 

 

 

 

 

 

这是深中通道伶仃洋大桥东塔、西人工岛及远处的深圳市区(2022年6月7日摄)。 新华社记者 邓华 摄

 

 

今年以来,受超预期因素影响,我国经济下行压力增大,稳重大工程投资、尽快形成实物工作量,对经济发展的支撑作用更加凸显。

 

 

在党中央以上率下示范引领下,各地以钉钉子精神做实做细做好各项工作,列出任务书、排出时间表、画定路线图,平陆运河、引汉济渭等一个个重大工程紧锣密鼓推进,发挥投资带动作用,为稳住经济大盘、提高综合竞争力、保障国家安全提供支撑。

 

 

一位西方政要来华访问时曾提出问题:为何中国制定的五年规划能一个接一个地完成?得到的答案是:中国的制度设计就是一张蓝图绘到底,一代接着一代干。

 

 

“实践证明,始终坚持党的强有力领导,才能正确发挥引领建设中国特色社会主义的最大功效。”中国宏观经济研究院经济研究所战略规划室副主任王利伟说。

 

 

 

 

 

 

这是“着巡合影”图。2021年6月11日,国家航天局在北京举行天问一号探测器着陆火星首批科学影像图揭幕仪式,公布了由祝融号火星车拍摄的着陆点全景、火星地形地貌、“中国印迹”和“着巡合影”等影像图。首批科学影像图的发布,标志着我国首次火星探测任务取得圆满成功。 新华社发(国家航天局供图)

 

 

依靠集中力量办大事实现跨越式发展

 

 

更加高效地配置科技创新的力量资源、更加有力地强化跨学科领域的协同攻关,在重点领域、前沿技术方面,迅速形成竞争优势、争取战略主动,是关键核心技术攻关新型举国体制下社会主义制度集中力量办大事的显著优势。

 

 

“中国的特高压技术很厉害,厉害到什么程度呢?”中国电力工程顾问集团东北电力设计院有限公司副总工程师张国良说,全球只有中国掌握特高压全套核心技术,所以中国标准就是世界标准。

 

 

特高压技术的突破,离不开重大工程依托、离不开联合攻关。

 

 

发挥集中力量办大事的制度优势,电网企业组织了几十家科研机构、高校和200多家设备制造企业的近5万名工程技术人员,产学研用协同攻关。依托自主创新,他们成功研发出与特高压相关的21大类、310项关键技术,连续攻克了特高电压、特大电流的绝缘、设备研制、电磁环境控制、试验技术等世界级难题。

 

 

9月13日下午,历经13天的连续施工,“西电东送”大动脉白鹤滩—浙江±800千伏特高压直流输电工程重庆段顺利完成长江大跨越放线作业,标志着“西电东送”工程取得重大进展。

 

 

 

 

 

 

2022年9月16日,白鹤滩至浙江±800千伏特高压直流输电工程(白浙线)安徽段顺利完成长江大跨越放线作业。白浙线是我国实施“西电东送”战略的重点工程(无人机照片)。 新华社发(赵献富 摄)

 

 

党的十八大以来,围绕国家重大战略需求,一项项重大工程建设着力攻破关键核心技术,抢占事关长远和全局的战略制高点,在实现跨越式发展的同时,始终坚持优势资源整体推进,集中力量办大事。

 

 

“要充分发挥我国社会主义制度能够集中力量办大事的优势,把这一光荣而艰巨的历史任务完成好。”2020年11月,川藏铁路开工建设时,习近平总书记作出重要指示。

 

 

2022年9月6日,中央全面深化改革委员会第二十七次会议审议通过了《关于健全社会主义市场经济条件下关键核心技术攻关新型举国体制的意见》。习近平总书记强调:“要发挥我国社会主义制度能够集中力量办大事的显著优势,强化党和国家对重大科技创新的领导,充分发挥市场机制作用,围绕国家战略需求,优化配置创新资源,强化国家战略科技力量,大幅提升科技攻关体系化能力,在若干重要领域形成竞争优势、赢得战略主动。”

 

 

10909米!这是我国载人深潜创造的下潜纪录。2020年11月,“奋斗者”号在马里亚纳海沟成功坐底,我国从此具有了进入世界海洋最深处的能力。

 

 

 

 

 

 

2021年8月18日,工作人员在西太平洋准备从“探索一号”科考船甲板布放“奋斗者”号。 新华社记者 陈凯姿 摄

 

 

万米深潜谈何容易!马里亚纳海沟最深处约11000米,水压高、完全黑暗的极端恶劣环境对潜水器的抗压能力、操控性能、通信系统的考验,无一不是世界级科技难题。

 

 

对此,我国组织近百家科研院所、高校、企业的近千名科研人员,按照“没有单位、只有岗位”的理念开展协同攻关,突破了一系列关键核心技术,“奋斗者”号部件的国产化率超过了96.5%,具备了全海深进入探测和作业的能力。

 

 

“在今天的中国,集中力量办大事,使我国在一些关键领域、重大项目上以较短时间实现了突破和创新。”广东省习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想研究中心特约研究员陈梓睿表示,从新中国成立以来重大工程建设这个领域可以清晰看出,在集中力量办大事的制度优势下,无论是科技创新能力还是创新速度,我们都实现了历史性跨越。

 

 

民生工程彰显为民本色

 

 

黄沙漫漫、狂风肆虐,这里是有着“死亡之海”之称的塔克拉玛干沙漠。恶劣的自然环境,阻断了大多数生物的繁衍生息,也阻碍了巴音郭楞蒙古自治州且末县的发展。在“死亡之海”上开通一条与外界联系的道路,成了且末县民众长久的盼望。

 

 

2017年10月,新疆尉犁县至且末县沙漠公路开工建设。克服路基松软、风沙埋路等难题,挖平32座高大沙山,填平28处丘间洼地,历经近5年“起早贪黑”的沙漠施工,2022年6月30日,这条全长334公里的沙漠公路正式通车。

 

 

路通了,从库尔勒市到且末县只用6个小时,用时缩短一半。当地牧业的运输和养殖成本大大降低,也方便了塔里木盆地丰富石油天然气资源的勘探、开发、运输……

 

 

“中国特色社会主义制度所具有的显著优势,就是抵御风险挑战、提高国家治理效能的根本保证,就是始终坚持一切为了人民、一切依靠人民,不断促进社会公平正义。这是我们制度设计的出发点和落脚点。”中国人民大学公共管理学院教授许光建说。

 

 

悠悠万事,民生为大。我们始终坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,不断提高发展质量和效益,惠及广大人民群众重大工程建设突飞猛进。

 

 

受益于南水北调工程,中线河南、河北、北京、天津四省市5300多万人喝上长江水,500多万人告别了高氟水、苦咸水;

 

 

受益于“西电东送”工程,西部资源优势转化为经济优势,为东部经济腾飞提供急需的能源,点亮万家灯火……

 

 

“我们党是为人民服务、为人民造福的党。把老百姓关心的事一件件办好,是共产党人的共同心愿。”习近平总书记的一番话饱含深情,揭示了中国共产党人一以贯之的为民宗旨。

 

 

今年是党的二十大召开之年。开年以来,各地各部门按照党中央关于“适度超前开展基础设施投资”的要求,持续推进“十四五”规划102项重大工程有序实施,推动重大项目建设见行见效、提质提效。

 

 

 

 

 

 

这是2022年7月18日在陕西省蒲城县拍摄的C919大飞机的试飞机。新华社记者 丁汀 摄

 

 

细看这102项重大工程,既有事关经济社会高质量发展的“国家大事”,如新一代人工智能、量子信息等引领未来发展的关键性重大攻关项目,川藏铁路、雅鲁藏布江下游水电基地、沿江沿海铁路等基础设施领域具有世界级水平的标志性工程,也有聚焦民生冷暖的“暖心小事”,如直接关系老百姓的城镇老旧小区改造、城市防洪排涝等一系列重大民生项目。

 

 

加装电梯、更换门窗、修建无障碍坡道——强调“一户一设计”的老旧小区改造有序推进。“十四五”期间,全国将基本完成2000年底前建成、约21.9万个城镇老旧小区改造任务。

 

 

5G基站建起来,社会经济发展有了更快捷的“信息高速路”——截至今年9月9日,我国累计建成开通5G基站196.8万个,工业互联网高质量外网覆盖全国300多个城市,新场景不断涌现。

 

 

崇山峻岭竖起巍巍铁塔,悬崖深涧架起悬索大桥,茫茫戈壁建成光伏电站……一个个重大工程拔地而起,传递着民生温度,不断提升人民群众的获得感、幸福感、安全感,印证着在党中央的正确领导下,我国充分发挥社会主义制度的优越性,必须把实现好、维护好、发展好最广大人民根本利益作为一切工作的出发点和落脚点,更加自觉地使改革发展成果更多更公平惠及全体人民。

 

 

“欲筑室者,先治其基。”在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,全党全国各族人民充分发挥中国特色社会主义制度的显著优势,全面加强重大工程建设,构建现代化基础设施体系,踔厉奋发、勇毅前行,为全面建设社会主义现代化国家夯基垒石。

 

Related News

Under the background of high-quality development, how will the road and bridge industry develop?

In the first year of the 14th Five-Year Plan, China's economy has entered a stage of high-quality development, transforming the mode of economic development, optimizing the economic structure, transforming the driving force of economic growth, and realizing the structural transformation from medium and low-end industries to medium and high-end industries is the theme of economic development for a long time in the future. With the gradual decline of the marginal utility of investment in economic pull, and the proposal of the new development pattern of "double cycle", China's economic growth drive is gradually changing from investment-driven to consumption-driven, therefore, the future investment growth rate of the construction industry will inevitably slow down further. As an important part of the construction industry, the road and bridge engineering construction industry plays a very important role in maintaining the normal operation of social production, circulation, distribution, and consumption, ensuring the sustained, rapid and healthy development of the national economy, improving people's living standards, and promoting the modernization of national defense. However, with the continuous improvement of the highway network and national and provincial highways, the market space of the road and bridge industry is under pressure, and the competition is becoming increasingly fierce. In the future, there are five main trends in the development of the road and bridge industry: First, industrial chain extension and related diversification are effective ways to deal with growth bottlenecks. The upstream and downstream expansion of the industrial chain includes the mining and manufacturing of upstream raw materials, downstream real estate, operation, and EPC construction general contracting. The related diversified development mainly extends to rail transit, water conservancy, environmental protection, maintenance engineering and other fields. Second, the concentration of the industry continues to increase, and market competition is further intensified. The market concentration of the construction industry is low and there are many players. However, with the further deepening of the marketization of the industry and the deterioration of the international environment, large and medium-sized enterprises such as central enterprises and provincial state-owned enterprises have begun to enter the city to seize the regional market and hinder the industry from breaking through. The influencing factors of geographical restrictions have been continuously weakened, the cross-regional competition of the industry has become increasingly significant, and the market concentration is expected to continue to increase. Third, the growth of the eastern market space is limited, and the western market has more room for development. With the low density of road network in the western region and the promotion of relevant policy factors such as the large-scale development of the western region and "Belt and Road Initiative", the investment in infrastructure construction in the western region is gradually strengthening and has become a key area for domestic highway construction. Fourth, intelligent transportation has become a new bright spot in the field of highway construction. Driven by technologies such as ultra-high-speed wireless local area network and 5G mobile communication, smart transportation will be greatly developed in the future. Fifth, the qualification reform promotes the road and bridge enterprises to enhance the degree of marketization and comprehensive strength. In March 2020, the Measures for the Administration of Engineering Cost Consulting Enterprises and the Measures for the Administration of Registered Cost Engineers proposed to lower the qualification threshold for cost enterprises. In July 2020, the Ministry of Housing and Construction issued the Framework of Qualification Standards for Construction Engineering Enterprises (Draft for Comments), proposing to significantly reduce the qualification categories and grades of enterprises. Lowering the entry threshold for the construction industry will further promote road and bridge enterprises to change the traditional concept of "waiting and relying on, really improve the construction ability, technical strength and management ability.


2023-10-17

Analysis and Solution Summary of Common Faults of Smearing Machine

1. Smoke from the smoothing machine when working Check the trowel machine to check whether there is too much oil. If there is too much oil, release part of it. It can also be that the piston is broken and severely worn and will burn the oil. If it is damaged, it needs to be replaced in time. Check the engine. If the engine is not faulty, it may also be that there are too many impurities in the oil. The oil is very important. Try to choose high-quality oil. When buying, you must pay attention to prevent buying inferior fake oil. 2. How to level the chassis screws of the smoothing machine First replace 4 new blades and put the trowel in a particularly flat place. Then remove the shift fork and visually inspect whether the heights of the four screws are consistent. If conditions permit, measure them with a ruler. If the heights are inconsistent, adjust them to be consistent. When the gland is gently shaken, if there is no shaking, the debugging is proved successful. Put some butter on the top of the screw to prevent wear. 3. The wiping machine always stalls Observe whether the oil level is normal and whether the oil is too little. Some machines have their own oil protection system, which will automatically turn off when there is a shortage of oil. There is also the fact that after the remote flameout switch and the flameout switch of the machine are disconnected one by one, if the flameout phenomenon does not occur again, it means that there is grounding in that part. Just check and eliminate it carefully. 4. The engine of the trowel is normal, but the trowel is not moved. If there is no problem with the engine, it is caused by the wrong belt type or the belt is too long. If there is still an abnormality, it can be handled by changing a clutch. 5. The gasoline polish machine was blistered First clean the carburetor, let the spark plug be removed to see if there is water in the cylinder head. If there is water, pull the disk several times to drain the water. Try again after changing the oil to see if it is normal. 6. The smoothing machine cannot rotate Reason: The blade may be deformed; the motor bearing is broken; the motor bracket is not fixed well; there is a problem in use.


2023-10-16

Method of polishing and grinding

Method of polishing grinding: Grinding is the grinding tool (hereinafter referred to as the grinding tool) surface embedded abrasive or coated abrasive and add lubricant, under certain pressure, the tool and the grinding tool contact and do relative movement, through the abrasive action, from the workpiece surface cut a layer of very thin chip, so that the workpiece has a precise size, accurate geometry and high surface roughness. Its essence is to use free abrasive particles to carry out micro-cutting including physical and chemical comprehensive effects on the surface of the workpiece through the grinding tool. Features:(1) In mechanical grinding, the machine tool-tool-workpiece system is in an elastic floating state. (2) The workpiece to be ground is not subject to any force and is therefore in a free state. (3) The speed of the grinding movement is usually below 30 m/min, which is about 1% of the grinding speed. (4) When grinding, only a very thin layer of material can be cut off, so the heat generated is less, the processing deformation is small, and the surface deterioration layer is also thin. (5) There is residual compressive stress on the grinding surface, which is beneficial to improve the fatigue strength of the workpiece surface. (6) The operation is simple and generally does not require complicated and expensive equipment. (7) Adaptability is good. (8) grinding can obtain very low surface roughness. 1. Fluid polishing Fluid polishing is to rely on high-speed flow of liquid and abrasive particles to wash the surface of the workpiece to achieve the purpose of polishing. Commonly used methods are: abrasive jet processing, liquid jet processing, fluid power grinding. Fluid power grinding is driven by hydraulic pressure, The liquid medium carrying the abrasive particles is caused to flow back and forth at high speed over the surface of the workpiece. The medium mainly uses special compounds with good flowability at lower pressure. (polymer-like substance) and mixed with abrasive, abrasive can be used silicon carbide powder. 2. Mechanical polishing Mechanical polishing is a method of polishing a smooth surface by cutting and plastic deformation of the surface of the material to remove the convex part after polishing, Generally use oilstone, wool wheel, sandpaper, etc., mainly manual operation, special parts such as the surface of the rotary body, Auxiliary tools such as turntables can be used, and the method of super-lapping can be used for high surface quality requirements. Super lapping is a special abrasive tool, In the polishing liquid containing abrasives, it is tightly pressed on the surface of the workpiece to be processed for high-speed rotating motion. Using this technology, the surface roughness of Ra0.008 μm can be achieved, which is the highest among various polishing methods. Optical lens molds often use this method. 3. Ultrasonic polishing The workpiece is placed in the abrasive suspension and placed together in the ultrasonic field, relying on the oscillation of the ultrasonic, The abrasive is ground and polished on the surface of the workpiece. Ultrasonic machining macro force is small, will not cause deformation of the workpiece, but tooling production and installation is difficult. Ultrasonic machining can be combined with chemical or electrochemical methods. On the basis of solution corrosion and electrolysis, ultrasonic vibration is applied to stir the solution, The dissolution products on the surface of the workpiece are separated, and the corrosion or electrolyte near the surface is uniform; Ultrasonic cavitation in the liquid can also inhibit the corrosion process, conducive to surface brightening. 4. Electrolytic polishing The basic principle of electrolytic polishing is the same as chemical polishing, that is, by selectively dissolving the small protruding parts of the surface of the material, Make the surface smooth. Compared with chemical polishing, the effect of cathode reaction can be eliminated, and the effect is better. The electrochemical polishing process is divided into two steps: (1) Macroscopic leveling dissolution products diffuse into the electrolyte, and the geometric roughness of the material surface decreases, Ra> 1μm. (2) micro light level anode polarization, surface brightness, Ra <1μm. 5. Fluid polishing Fluid polishing is to rely on high-speed flow of liquid and abrasive particles to wash the surface of the workpiece to achieve the purpose of polishing. Commonly used methods are: abrasive jet processing, liquid jet processing, fluid power grinding. Fluid power grinding is driven by hydraulic pressure, The liquid medium carrying the abrasive particles is caused to flow back and forth at high speed over the surface of the workpiece. The medium is mainly made of special compounds (polymer-like substances) with good flowability at lower pressure and mixed with abrasives, The abrasive may use silicon carbide powder. 6. Chemical polishing Chemical polishing is to make the surface of the material in the chemical medium micro convex part of the concave part of the preferential dissolution, A smooth surface is thus obtained. The main advantage of this method is that it does not require complex equipment and can polish workpieces with complex shapes, Many workpieces can be polished at the same time with high efficiency. The core problem of chemical polishing is the preparation of polishing solution. Surface roughness obtained by chemical polishing Generally, it is several 10 μm. 7. Magnetic grinding and polishing Magnetic grinding and polishing is the use of magnetic abrasive under the action of a magnetic field to form an abrasive brush to grind the workpiece. This method has high processing efficiency, Good quality, easy control of processing conditions, good working conditions. With suitable abrasives, the surface roughness can reach Ra0.1 μm. The polishing in plastic mold processing is very different from the surface polishing required in other industries, Strictly speaking, the polishing of the mold should be called mirror processing. It not only has the very high request to the polishing itself but also to the surface flatness, There are also high standards for smoothness and geometric accuracy. Surface polishing is generally only required to obtain a bright surface. The standard of mirror processing is divided into four levels: AO = Ra0.008μm, A1 = Ra0.016μm, A3 = Ra0.032μm, A4 = Ra0.063 μm, due to electrolytic polishing, fluid polishing and other methods are difficult to accurately control the geometric accuracy of the part, The surface quality of chemical polishing, ultrasonic polishing, magnetic grinding polishing and other methods can not meet the requirements, so the mirror processing of precision molds Or mainly mechanical polishing.


2023-10-12

What does the floor grinder floor grinder inverter display oL2 mean? Why can't the machine start? How to solve?

The situation is as follows: 1. The ground is very uneven, the resistance of the grinding disc is large, and the motor load is too heavy. 2. If this situation occurs when the new machine is used for the first time, it means that the governor has been adjusted to the fastest speed position, or the new grinding plate (block) Not open rough pressure on the rough hard surface, resulting in a large disc resistance, motor load is too heavy. 3. If the gearbox is repaired and the machine is initially tested like this, it may be that the gear assembly is not smooth and too tight, causing the grinding disc to rotate manually. It is not smooth, or the motor shaft and the center gear are not concentric after the motor is fixed during assembly, that is, the rotation is not concentric, which makes the electricity The rotation of the rotor is blocked and Caton occurs. Corresponding solution: 1, the machine up, move to a relatively flat ground area grinding, and then slowly cut into the uneven ground area, or use Other small grinding disc machinery will ground the rough surface of the potholes slightly smooth, and then use the machine to grind. 2. Roughen the grinding piece (block) on the cement floor. Press down on the armrest and raise the starter of the machine (make the grinding disc slightly off the ground). The machine (grinding disc) can be slowly landed. 3. Reassemble the gear or reassemble the motor to make the gear and the grinding disc rotate smoothly. After inserting the motor shaft into the central gear Concentric, suspend the motor and the box and energize the motor to start the motor, so that the motor, gear and grinding disc rotate smoothly. After shutdown, hand Rotate the grinding disc smoothly.


2023-10-09