165 major projects! Look at China from here.
165 major projects! Look at China from here.
In December 2014, the Chengdu-Ya'an section started construction and was officially put into operation four years later. In November this year, the construction of the section from Ya'an to Nyingchi started, and a "heavenly road" to promote the economic and social development of Tibet and the unity of the Chinese nation is just around the corner!
However, we will have more opportunities to approach it in the future, because it is about to be "surrounded" by railways ". In 2018, the Hotan-Ruoqiang Railway was started. After opening to traffic, the Heluo Railway will be connected with the Kashgar-Hotan Railway and the Golmud-Korla Railway to form a railway network around the Tarim Basin. This will be the world's first desert railway loop.
Source: Natural Resources Department of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
Are these two projects difficult!
But you thought it was over? No!
When we look at the whole of China, a total of 165 major projects such as the Sichuan-Tibet Railway and the Heluo Railway are under construction on an area of more than 960 million square kilometers. Their full landing effect occurred in the "13th Five-Year Plan" period (2016-2020) 5 years.
From 156 project to 165 project, from being aided to independent construction
The "five-year plan (plan)" means to plan the future economic and social development trend with a five-year cycle.
For the Chinese, the "Five-Year Plan (Plan)" is a road monument to measure national progress and a carrier to record national dreams. From 1953 to 2020, from the "First Five-Year Plan" to the "Thirteenth Five-Year Plan", five years have created historical signs of different periods.
But did you know that there are only two major projects in the Five-Year Plan (Plan) named in numbers, namely, 156 items in the First Five-Year Plan and 165 items in the 13th Five-Year Plan? What is the significance behind this?
The answer is: the nose.
The "First Five-Year Plan" was launched. At that time, China was poor and white, and everything was waiting for prosperity. In 1957, the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge was completed and opened to traffic, and the "First Bridge of the Yangtze River" was born.
On May 4, 1957, the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge Steel Beam Closure Celebration Conference was held at the bridge head (issued by Xinhua News Agency)
Since then, "a bridge flies north and south, and the sky becomes a thoroughfare." The Chinese dream of building a bridge on the Yangtze River for thousands of years has been realized. Many of us may not know that this huge project was built with the support of the Soviet Union.
The river is silent and witnesses historical changes.
61 years later, in southern China, a "super project" across the Lingdingyang sea area has attracted worldwide attention. The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, the world's longest sea-crossing bridge with a total length of 55 kilometers, was completed and opened to traffic.
On October 24, 2018, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was officially opened to traffic (photo by Xinhua News Agency reporter Liang Xu)
From the "First Five-Year Plan" to the "Thirteenth Five-Year Plan", from relying on aid construction to independent construction, from "zero" breakthroughs to the top of the world. These major projects have set up milestones in China's modernization process.
02 From concentrated in heavy industry to spread across many fields
The 156 projects of the "First Five-Year Plan" are concentrated in the field of heavy industry, involving steel, metallurgy, coal mines, petroleum refining, heavy machinery, automobiles, chemicals, and electric power.
By the late 1950 s, these major projects had laid the foundation for the industrialization of New China and changed the picture of poor heavy industry products at the beginning of the founding of the people's Republic of China.
A large number of newly made seamless steel pipes are being lifted and transported out of the factory (1953 data photo). Xinhua News Agency
One of the "156 projects", the first phase of Angang Dashiqiao Magnesium Brick Factory was put into production in 1957. It is from the raw material mining to the product is made of mechanized automation operation, is the first-class high-grade refractory factory. Xinhua News Agency
The 165 projects of the "13th Five-Year Plan" cover the primary, secondary and tertiary industries and have changed all aspects of our lives. The land where we live is being connected by steel bars and bones.
From alpine snow-capped mountains to thousands of miles of fertile fields;
from vast grasslands to busy cities;
From the tropical ocean to the blooming flower fields.
A test train of Lanzhou-Xinjiang high-speed railway is speeding at the foothills of Qilian Mountain, about 3300 meters above sea level. Xinhua News Agency (Photo by Cai Zengle)
The bullet train passes through the section of Sili Village, Chengcun Township, Sanjiang Dong Autonomous County, Gui-Guang High-speed Railway (UAV photo). Xinhua News Agency (photo by Gong Pukang)
Hainan Island high-speed rail is the world's first coastal island high-speed rail, the train in the eastern section of the Lingshui station near the passing. (Photo by Xinhua News Agency reporter Yang Guanyu)
March 4, 2020, Guiguang High-speed Railway, near Congjiang Station, Guizhou. (Photo by Xinhua News Agency reporter Yang Wenbin)
(1) The railway
More than a hundred years ago, the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway broke the assertion that the Chinese could not build their own railways. In 2019, the Beijing-Zhangjiakou high-speed railway will be opened. As China's first intelligent high-speed railway, it will connect Beijing and Zhangjiakou, the two major host places of the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympic Games, and drive the development along the line.
A Fuxing high-speed train passes through the Juyongguan Tunnel of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou high-speed railway (Xinhua News Agency)
Looking at China, with "eight vertical and eight horizontal" as the framework, the world's largest high-speed railway network is taking shape, with an operating mileage of about 3.80000 kilometers, exceeding the target of the 13th five-year Plan.
Not only are high-speed trains shuttling between green mountains and green waters, but a number of major energy projects have also sprung up on the magnificent mountains and rivers.
This is China's fourth largest hydropower station Jinsha River Wudongde hydropower station three-dimensional effect. Xinhua News Agency (photo source: China Three Gorges Corporation)
At the junction of Yunnan and Sichuan, a major project to implement "power transmission from west to east" is the Wudongde Hydropower Station, the seventh largest hydropower station in the world and the fourth largest hydropower station in China. After nearly five years of construction, the first batch of units will be officially put into operation in June 2020, and the hydropower station will achieve the goal of putting all units into operation in 2021.
This is a panoramic view of the Wudongde Hydropower Station under construction taken by drone in 2019 (photo by Xinhua News Agency reporter Chen Yehua)
The green electricity produced by Wudongde Hydropower Station is expected to replace the consumption of standard coal by 12.2 million tons per year, reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide by 30.5 million tons and sulfur dioxide by 104000 tons, which is equivalent to planting 85000 hectares of broad-leaved forest.
(3) Investment and manufacturing
More than 60 years ago, the 156 projects of the "First Five-Year Plan" basically relied on state investment. Today, the 165 projects of the "13th Five-Year Plan" have fully mobilized the strength of the whole society. For many projects, the central and local governments do not pay much, the society contributes a lot, and the participation is wide. Some projects are mainly undertaken by enterprises.
BOE Hefei's 10.5 generation TFT-LCD production line is the world's first highest generation line. According to Omdia, a market research organization, the global market share of 65-inch and 75-inch LCD screens produced by Hefei BOE in 2019 has reached more than 30%, ranking first in the world.
BOE Hefei 10.5 Generation TFT-LCD Production Line (Image Source: BOE Technology Group Co., Ltd.)
In other words, for every three large-size displays sold in the world, one is produced by BOE Hefei 10.5 generation line.
Like BOE production lines, the benefits of the "13th Five-Year Plan" 165 projects are comprehensive. Their establishment is not to solve a single problem, but to value the traction and driving effects of these projects.
165 project is not only the project itself, but also an investment of tens of trillions of yuan, which is of immeasurable significance to investment, employment, industrial development, and technological breakthroughs in upstream and downstream.
03 "old irons" please praise this report card!
The old high-tech field is also frequently refreshing our cognition.
On December 17, 2020, Chang'e -5 ended its "digging" work and returned to its hometown with the moon's "native products.
On December 4, the National Space Administration released photos of the lunar exploration project Chang'e -5 probe displaying the national flag on the lunar surface. Xinhua News Agency
(Image source: National Space Administration)
Nine days to capture the moon to explore the landing, 16 spring and autumn around the fall back.
"Chang'e -5" is the final battle of China's lunar exploration project, and it is one of the most complex and difficult tasks in China's aerospace field so far.
However, every "first time" created by her stems from the successive efforts of the "sisters:
Up to now, "Yutu II" is still working, constantly sending information about the back of the moon to the earth. From "running to the moon" to "taking the moon", Chang'e explored the moon with "five battles and five victories", without exceeding the budget, lowering the target, and not delaying the time, and handing over bright answers.
In the future, Chang'e will explore the moon on the 6th, 7th, and 8th. u2026u2026 believe that we will not be too far away from manned landing on the moon.
This is a list of major scientific and technological breakthroughs of "first time", "first" and "leading" significance in the past month:
From the highest mountain to the deepest ocean, from the reddest star to the most beautiful month, during the "13th Five-Year Plan" period, my country's scientific and technological innovation and development have already crossed the mountains, rivers and seas, and the stars of the universe. The blowout makes people unconsciously laugh at themselves: "The speed of praise can't keep up with the pace of breakthrough!"
On top of the list, a pearl on the tip of the pyramid of technological innovation shines. In addition to the list, they are full of cutting-edge scientific and technological exploration, strategic pilot projects and major scientific and technological engineering u2026u2026, which are the solid innovation bases for the pyramid, and will also hold up the "stars of tomorrow" that will be brighter in the future ".
04 Some projects are "small"
In fact, major projects are not only large-scale projects such as going up from heaven to earth, going through mountains and going down to the sea, but also many "small" projects that you and I are not easy to detect.
In order to fill the stomachs of the "dry rice kings", the country has built about 80 million mu of high-standard farmland every year in recent years. They are all fields. Why is it called "high standard"? Where is the "high" standard?
Look at a set of data:
The grain production capacity of high-standard farmland increased by an average of 10-20 per cent, the average grain yield per mu increased by about 100kg, and 85.5 per cent of the sampled project areas had a higher level of stability of grain production capacity in years of severe meteorological disasters than non-project areas.
With such farmland, not only are we "dry rice kings" blessed, but the farmers also laugh. The comprehensive income per mu can increase by about 500 yuan.
High-standard farmland near Xieying Village, Gaomiao Town, Wancheng District, Nanyang City, Henan Province (drone photo)
(Xinhua News Agency reporter Feng Dapeng photo)
I wonder if any careful readers have noticed that there is a white box at the top right of the farmland and a pink "L" shaped house in the middle of the farmland. Guess what this is?
The answer is: the upper right box is a meteorological observation station, which can monitor atmospheric temperature, soil moisture and wind speed in real time. The middle pink "L"-shaped house is a management room with shovels, brooms, fire extinguishers, computers, LED screens, etc.
At the same time, we may as well pay more attention to the development of our hometown. Over the years, have you found:
The dirt roads in my hometown village have all turned into cement roads;
The road to visit relatives and friends is no longer muddy after a snowy day;
One to the summer smell of the dry toilet more and more rare;
A basketball court was built on the abandoned wheat field, and the village aunts and aunts began to compete with the boys for the "square dance" territory......
Let us remember these major projects
changed this country
Benefit the 1.4 billion people
Connecting the past with the present, the present with the future
Over the years
How has your neighborhood or village changed?
In the first year of the 14th Five-Year Plan, China's economy has entered a stage of high-quality development, transforming the mode of economic development, optimizing the economic structure, transforming the driving force of economic growth, and realizing the structural transformation from medium and low-end industries to medium and high-end industries is the theme of economic development for a long time in the future. With the gradual decline of the marginal utility of investment in economic pull, and the proposal of the new development pattern of "double cycle", China's economic growth drive is gradually changing from investment-driven to consumption-driven, therefore, the future investment growth rate of the construction industry will inevitably slow down further. As an important part of the construction industry, the road and bridge engineering construction industry plays a very important role in maintaining the normal operation of social production, circulation, distribution, and consumption, ensuring the sustained, rapid and healthy development of the national economy, improving people's living standards, and promoting the modernization of national defense. However, with the continuous improvement of the highway network and national and provincial highways, the market space of the road and bridge industry is under pressure, and the competition is becoming increasingly fierce. In the future, there are five main trends in the development of the road and bridge industry: First, industrial chain extension and related diversification are effective ways to deal with growth bottlenecks. The upstream and downstream expansion of the industrial chain includes the mining and manufacturing of upstream raw materials, downstream real estate, operation, and EPC construction general contracting. The related diversified development mainly extends to rail transit, water conservancy, environmental protection, maintenance engineering and other fields. Second, the concentration of the industry continues to increase, and market competition is further intensified. The market concentration of the construction industry is low and there are many players. However, with the further deepening of the marketization of the industry and the deterioration of the international environment, large and medium-sized enterprises such as central enterprises and provincial state-owned enterprises have begun to enter the city to seize the regional market and hinder the industry from breaking through. The influencing factors of geographical restrictions have been continuously weakened, the cross-regional competition of the industry has become increasingly significant, and the market concentration is expected to continue to increase. Third, the growth of the eastern market space is limited, and the western market has more room for development. With the low density of road network in the western region and the promotion of relevant policy factors such as the large-scale development of the western region and "Belt and Road Initiative", the investment in infrastructure construction in the western region is gradually strengthening and has become a key area for domestic highway construction. Fourth, intelligent transportation has become a new bright spot in the field of highway construction. Driven by technologies such as ultra-high-speed wireless local area network and 5G mobile communication, smart transportation will be greatly developed in the future. Fifth, the qualification reform promotes the road and bridge enterprises to enhance the degree of marketization and comprehensive strength. In March 2020, the Measures for the Administration of Engineering Cost Consulting Enterprises and the Measures for the Administration of Registered Cost Engineers proposed to lower the qualification threshold for cost enterprises. In July 2020, the Ministry of Housing and Construction issued the Framework of Qualification Standards for Construction Engineering Enterprises (Draft for Comments), proposing to significantly reduce the qualification categories and grades of enterprises. Lowering the entry threshold for the construction industry will further promote road and bridge enterprises to change the traditional concept of "waiting and relying on, really improve the construction ability, technical strength and management ability.
1. Smoke from the smoothing machine when working Check the trowel machine to check whether there is too much oil. If there is too much oil, release part of it. It can also be that the piston is broken and severely worn and will burn the oil. If it is damaged, it needs to be replaced in time. Check the engine. If the engine is not faulty, it may also be that there are too many impurities in the oil. The oil is very important. Try to choose high-quality oil. When buying, you must pay attention to prevent buying inferior fake oil. 2. How to level the chassis screws of the smoothing machine First replace 4 new blades and put the trowel in a particularly flat place. Then remove the shift fork and visually inspect whether the heights of the four screws are consistent. If conditions permit, measure them with a ruler. If the heights are inconsistent, adjust them to be consistent. When the gland is gently shaken, if there is no shaking, the debugging is proved successful. Put some butter on the top of the screw to prevent wear. 3. The wiping machine always stalls Observe whether the oil level is normal and whether the oil is too little. Some machines have their own oil protection system, which will automatically turn off when there is a shortage of oil. There is also the fact that after the remote flameout switch and the flameout switch of the machine are disconnected one by one, if the flameout phenomenon does not occur again, it means that there is grounding in that part. Just check and eliminate it carefully. 4. The engine of the trowel is normal, but the trowel is not moved. If there is no problem with the engine, it is caused by the wrong belt type or the belt is too long. If there is still an abnormality, it can be handled by changing a clutch. 5. The gasoline polish machine was blistered First clean the carburetor, let the spark plug be removed to see if there is water in the cylinder head. If there is water, pull the disk several times to drain the water. Try again after changing the oil to see if it is normal. 6. The smoothing machine cannot rotate Reason: The blade may be deformed; the motor bearing is broken; the motor bracket is not fixed well; there is a problem in use.
Method of polishing grinding: Grinding is the grinding tool (hereinafter referred to as the grinding tool) surface embedded abrasive or coated abrasive and add lubricant, under certain pressure, the tool and the grinding tool contact and do relative movement, through the abrasive action, from the workpiece surface cut a layer of very thin chip, so that the workpiece has a precise size, accurate geometry and high surface roughness. Its essence is to use free abrasive particles to carry out micro-cutting including physical and chemical comprehensive effects on the surface of the workpiece through the grinding tool. Features:(1) In mechanical grinding, the machine tool-tool-workpiece system is in an elastic floating state. (2) The workpiece to be ground is not subject to any force and is therefore in a free state. (3) The speed of the grinding movement is usually below 30 m/min, which is about 1% of the grinding speed. (4) When grinding, only a very thin layer of material can be cut off, so the heat generated is less, the processing deformation is small, and the surface deterioration layer is also thin. (5) There is residual compressive stress on the grinding surface, which is beneficial to improve the fatigue strength of the workpiece surface. (6) The operation is simple and generally does not require complicated and expensive equipment. (7) Adaptability is good. (8) grinding can obtain very low surface roughness. 1. Fluid polishing Fluid polishing is to rely on high-speed flow of liquid and abrasive particles to wash the surface of the workpiece to achieve the purpose of polishing. Commonly used methods are: abrasive jet processing, liquid jet processing, fluid power grinding. Fluid power grinding is driven by hydraulic pressure, The liquid medium carrying the abrasive particles is caused to flow back and forth at high speed over the surface of the workpiece. The medium mainly uses special compounds with good flowability at lower pressure. (polymer-like substance) and mixed with abrasive, abrasive can be used silicon carbide powder. 2. Mechanical polishing Mechanical polishing is a method of polishing a smooth surface by cutting and plastic deformation of the surface of the material to remove the convex part after polishing, Generally use oilstone, wool wheel, sandpaper, etc., mainly manual operation, special parts such as the surface of the rotary body, Auxiliary tools such as turntables can be used, and the method of super-lapping can be used for high surface quality requirements. Super lapping is a special abrasive tool, In the polishing liquid containing abrasives, it is tightly pressed on the surface of the workpiece to be processed for high-speed rotating motion. Using this technology, the surface roughness of Ra0.008 μm can be achieved, which is the highest among various polishing methods. Optical lens molds often use this method. 3. Ultrasonic polishing The workpiece is placed in the abrasive suspension and placed together in the ultrasonic field, relying on the oscillation of the ultrasonic, The abrasive is ground and polished on the surface of the workpiece. Ultrasonic machining macro force is small, will not cause deformation of the workpiece, but tooling production and installation is difficult. Ultrasonic machining can be combined with chemical or electrochemical methods. On the basis of solution corrosion and electrolysis, ultrasonic vibration is applied to stir the solution, The dissolution products on the surface of the workpiece are separated, and the corrosion or electrolyte near the surface is uniform; Ultrasonic cavitation in the liquid can also inhibit the corrosion process, conducive to surface brightening. 4. Electrolytic polishing The basic principle of electrolytic polishing is the same as chemical polishing, that is, by selectively dissolving the small protruding parts of the surface of the material, Make the surface smooth. Compared with chemical polishing, the effect of cathode reaction can be eliminated, and the effect is better. The electrochemical polishing process is divided into two steps: (1) Macroscopic leveling dissolution products diffuse into the electrolyte, and the geometric roughness of the material surface decreases, Ra> 1μm. (2) micro light level anode polarization, surface brightness, Ra <1μm. 5. Fluid polishing Fluid polishing is to rely on high-speed flow of liquid and abrasive particles to wash the surface of the workpiece to achieve the purpose of polishing. Commonly used methods are: abrasive jet processing, liquid jet processing, fluid power grinding. Fluid power grinding is driven by hydraulic pressure, The liquid medium carrying the abrasive particles is caused to flow back and forth at high speed over the surface of the workpiece. The medium is mainly made of special compounds (polymer-like substances) with good flowability at lower pressure and mixed with abrasives, The abrasive may use silicon carbide powder. 6. Chemical polishing Chemical polishing is to make the surface of the material in the chemical medium micro convex part of the concave part of the preferential dissolution, A smooth surface is thus obtained. The main advantage of this method is that it does not require complex equipment and can polish workpieces with complex shapes, Many workpieces can be polished at the same time with high efficiency. The core problem of chemical polishing is the preparation of polishing solution. Surface roughness obtained by chemical polishing Generally, it is several 10 μm. 7. Magnetic grinding and polishing Magnetic grinding and polishing is the use of magnetic abrasive under the action of a magnetic field to form an abrasive brush to grind the workpiece. This method has high processing efficiency, Good quality, easy control of processing conditions, good working conditions. With suitable abrasives, the surface roughness can reach Ra0.1 μm. The polishing in plastic mold processing is very different from the surface polishing required in other industries, Strictly speaking, the polishing of the mold should be called mirror processing. It not only has the very high request to the polishing itself but also to the surface flatness, There are also high standards for smoothness and geometric accuracy. Surface polishing is generally only required to obtain a bright surface. The standard of mirror processing is divided into four levels: AO = Ra0.008μm, A1 = Ra0.016μm, A3 = Ra0.032μm, A4 = Ra0.063 μm, due to electrolytic polishing, fluid polishing and other methods are difficult to accurately control the geometric accuracy of the part, The surface quality of chemical polishing, ultrasonic polishing, magnetic grinding polishing and other methods can not meet the requirements, so the mirror processing of precision molds Or mainly mechanical polishing.
Product Features: 1. Imported switch with overload protection has the function of phase loss and leakage protection. 2. Equipped with vacuum cleaner connection device to provide dust-free working environment. 3, fast speed, can work for a long time, high grinding efficiency. 4, can add 12kg of weight iron, can effectively polish the old epoxy floor. 5, can adjust the ground grinding depth. 6. There are four kinds of diamond grinding discs for selection: extra coarse, coarse, medium and fine. The extra coarse disc is especially suitable for removing the old epoxy ground. 7, you can choose the combination of cheap grinding block. 8. The damping device designed with aviation rubber material is flexible and durable.
The situation is as follows: 1. The ground is very uneven, the resistance of the grinding disc is large, and the motor load is too heavy. 2. If this situation occurs when the new machine is used for the first time, it means that the governor has been adjusted to the fastest speed position, or the new grinding plate (block) Not open rough pressure on the rough hard surface, resulting in a large disc resistance, motor load is too heavy. 3. If the gearbox is repaired and the machine is initially tested like this, it may be that the gear assembly is not smooth and too tight, causing the grinding disc to rotate manually. It is not smooth, or the motor shaft and the center gear are not concentric after the motor is fixed during assembly, that is, the rotation is not concentric, which makes the electricity The rotation of the rotor is blocked and Caton occurs. Corresponding solution: 1, the machine up, move to a relatively flat ground area grinding, and then slowly cut into the uneven ground area, or use Other small grinding disc machinery will ground the rough surface of the potholes slightly smooth, and then use the machine to grind. 2. Roughen the grinding piece (block) on the cement floor. Press down on the armrest and raise the starter of the machine (make the grinding disc slightly off the ground). The machine (grinding disc) can be slowly landed. 3. Reassemble the gear or reassemble the motor to make the gear and the grinding disc rotate smoothly. After inserting the motor shaft into the central gear Concentric, suspend the motor and the box and energize the motor to start the motor, so that the motor, gear and grinding disc rotate smoothly. After shutdown, hand Rotate the grinding disc smoothly.
Meatengqi multifunctional ground grinding machine can be used for grinding concrete ground, with light and flexible operation, grinding and sucking Body, save manpower, grinding and vacuuming into one, while polishing while vacuuming, providing a good dust-free polishing environment. If equipped with sandpaper grinding, can also be polished epoxy putty layer; at the same time on the epoxy putty layer wear small, improve Epoxy floor flatness, with resin drive disc and resin grinding, can be used for liquid hardener construction Sanding and polishing. Use a rubber connector to connect the grinding disc to completely avoid the shock caused by mechanical wear after the equipment has been used for a period of time. movement phenomenon.