Expansion! China's largest "cross-city" subway group is coming
The geographical boundaries of Chinese cities are disappearing.
"Cross-provincial" Metro Expansion
The subway is connecting different cities together.
A few days ago, the "Guangzhou Rail Transit Network Planning (2018-2035)" was released. By 2035, Guangzhou will build an urban rail transit system composed of high-speed subways, express subways, and general-speed subways, with a total scale of 53 and 2029 kilometers.
Guangzhou's subway network is not limited to the city, but to the expansion of the metropolitan area and outside.
According to the plan, there will be 18 connecting channels in Guangzhou and Foshan in the future, 6 connecting channels in Guangzhou and Dongguan, and 1 connecting channel in Guangzhou to Shenzhen, Qingyuan, Zhongshan, Huizhou and other regions.
This means that Guangfo is almost connected by subway, and Guangfo will become the largest urban area in China. Guangzhou and Dongguan, Shenzhen, Qingyuan, Zhongshan, Huizhou will also have urban rail transit links.
Coincidentally, Shenzhen is planning to extend the subway line to Dongguan and Huizhou in the metropolitan area.
Recently, according to Shenzhen media, Shenzhen and Dongguan, Huizhou will form a total of 17 cross-city tracks in the future. Among them, there are 13 articles between Shen Guan and 4 articles between Shen Hui.
At present, five branches including the east extension of Shenzhen Line 6, the north extension of Shenzhen Line 11, the north extension of Shenzhen Line 22, the east extension of Shenzhen Line 10 and the east extension of Shenzhen Line 14 are being studied and included in the fifth phase of the construction plan.
This indicates that the long-called Shenzhen-Dongguan and Shenzhen-Hui inter-provincial subways are about to move from concept to reality, and Shenzhen's population and industry are expected to continue to transfer to the two places.
At that time, in the Greater Bay Area, there will be not only high-speed rail, EMU, and urban rail connections between major cities, but also a more urban-oriented subway network. The Greater Bay Area will become a city in the sense of transportation.
In addition, the inter-provincial subways in Shanghai and Beijing are also advancing in an orderly manner.
As early as 2013, the country's first inter-provincial subway Shanghai Line 11 was fully completed, and since then there has been a direct channel from Shanghai to Kunshan, Jiangsu. In the future, Shanghai to Jiangsu Taicang, Zhejiang Jiaxing, or will have a city fast rail connection.
After calling for more than ten years, the Beijing subway finally began to extend to Hebei. At present, the feasibility study report of the Beijing section of Beijing Rail Transit Line 22 (Pinggu Line) has been approved, marking the first time that Beisan County will be connected to the capital subway network.
In addition, there are a number of second-tier cities began to layout within the metropolitan area of the subway network expansion.
At the end of last year, the Gedian section of the third phase of Wuhan Metro Line 11 was opened for operation, and Ezhou entered the "subway era" and became the second city in the province to have a subway after Wuhan.
At present, Nanjing line S6 Ningju intercity operation, Ningma intercity, Ningyang intercity, Ningchou intercity fully started, the future Nanjing to Zhenjiang, Yangzhou and Anhui Maanshan, Chuzhou will have rail transit connections.
Who is Metro First City?
Subway, why is it so important?
This is the first half of 2022 China's urban rail transit line ranking:
In official documents, the subway is included in the category of urban rail transit.
Urban rail transit is a broad sense of the subway, including subway, light rail, urban express rail, tram, magnetic levitation, APM and so on.
According to the analysis of the book "China's Urban Trends", unlike high-speed rail focusing on inter-provincial transportation and inter-city railway focusing on inter-city transportation, urban rail transit focuses on intra-city and inter-metropolitan areas.
In urban rail transit, subways mostly operate underground, with the highest cost, the strictest approval, and the highest construction threshold, but they cover more stations, the shortest interval, higher passenger flow, stronger pulling effect, and the highest value.
The urban express rail, which connects the central city with the suburbs and metropolitan areas, can be understood as a long-distance subway, but with fewer stations and longer intervals.
Trams are laid on the road, have independent right of way, and the approval is relatively loose. Therefore, they have become an alternative choice for new urban areas and second-and third-tier cities that cannot build subways.
China's urban rail transit, basically to the subway, but more than half of Nanjing, Qingdao nearly 6 Chengdu is the city fast rail.
Subway, why is it so important?
When the subway rings, gold is ten thousand taels.
The subway is famous for its large passenger flow, multi-station, high frequency and punctuality, which can not only shorten the access time, but also narrow the psychological distance between different regions.
As long as there is a subway connection, the place tens of kilometers away from the main urban area is no longer a solitary suburb, and the provincial boundary represented by the three northern counties is no longer the embarrassment of being "disliked.
Even if these places cannot be merged with strong central cities, they can also complete the integration in the sense of metropolitan area through subways.
It is worth mentioning that the subway has a strong economic effect.
In the short term, subway construction is a sharp weapon to stimulate the economy, and the fixed asset investment it drives can often become a support for steady growth.
In the medium and long term, the network of subway connections can drive the redistribution of urban population, commerce, and resources among regions, and drive the value of land around the subway to increase by multiple levels.
At the level of the metropolitan area, the existence of the cross-city subway helps to break the geographical boundaries between different cities.
Central cities can use this for soft expansion.
Even if the surrounding cities cannot be merged through administrative means, the influence of transportation, economy, and industry is enough to bring the surrounding cities into their own "disguised.
More importantly, the soft expansion of the central city will also drive the population and industry of the core city and help the common development of the metropolitan area.
At present, in the Pearl River Delta, Yangtze River Delta and the capital metropolitan area, cross-city commuting has become a trend.
Data show that the Pearl River Delta has an average of at least 1.21 million people commuting across cities every day. Among them, with the opening of three inter-city subways, the average number of trips between Guangzhou and Foshan reached 1.74 million, ranking first in the country.
With the gradual formation of the cross-city subway network, this number will double, which can be described as a shot in the arm for the starving third-and fourth-tier property market.
Not all cities are eligible to build subways.
The expansion of the cross-city subway allows third-and fourth-tier cities to use the metropolitan area to complete the "curve to save the country" of the subway ".
You know, not every city is qualified to build a subway.
According to the "Opinions on Further Strengthening the Management of Urban Rail Transit Planning and Construction" issued in 2018, the threshold for subway and light rail construction has been comprehensively raised.
The subway requires a GDP of more than 300 billion yuan, an urban population of more than 3 million yuan, and a local general budget revenue of more than 30 billion yuan;
Light rail requires a GDP of more than 150 billion, an urban population of more than 1.5 million, and a local general budget revenue of more than 15 billion.
In the past few years, urban subway projects in Baotou and other cities were suspended because GDP and fiscal revenue did not meet the standards; Huizhou has been seeking to connect with the Shenzhen subway, but it has been stranded many times in the past due to the size of the urban population.
A few days ago, based on the consideration of preventing local debt, the state has further tightened the threshold for subway construction.
At the end of last year, the National Development and Reform Commission and other departments issued a document stating that it is strictly forbidden to build subways and light rails in disguise in the name of new intercity railways and urban (suburban) railways.
At the beginning of this year, according to the China Business News, relevant departments will further refine the urban rail approval conditions, and will not accept the first round of construction plans for unqualified cities and general prefecture-level cities; at the same time, it is stipulated that the passenger flow does not meet the standards after three years of operation., Can not report a new round of construction planning.
This means that even if the GDP, population, fiscal revenue and other rigid indicators meet the standards, the insufficient passenger flow will not be able to build the subway.
This highlights the importance of "cross-city subway" under the metropolitan area, which is equivalent to opening a back door for third-and fourth-tier cities with insufficient economic volume.
The most significant sign of the metropolitan area is the "one-hour traffic circle", which is naturally inseparable from the interconnection of subways, light rails, urban express rails, and intercity railways.
Under the general trend of transportation integration, even if the third-and fourth-tier cities located in the metropolitan area do not meet the requirements, they are also expected to connect the subway.
This is an important opportunity for third-and fourth-tier cities in the metropolitan area era.
In the first year of the 14th Five-Year Plan, China's economy has entered a stage of high-quality development, transforming the mode of economic development, optimizing the economic structure, transforming the driving force of economic growth, and realizing the structural transformation from medium and low-end industries to medium and high-end industries is the theme of economic development for a long time in the future. With the gradual decline of the marginal utility of investment in economic pull, and the proposal of the new development pattern of "double cycle", China's economic growth drive is gradually changing from investment-driven to consumption-driven, therefore, the future investment growth rate of the construction industry will inevitably slow down further. As an important part of the construction industry, the road and bridge engineering construction industry plays a very important role in maintaining the normal operation of social production, circulation, distribution, and consumption, ensuring the sustained, rapid and healthy development of the national economy, improving people's living standards, and promoting the modernization of national defense. However, with the continuous improvement of the highway network and national and provincial highways, the market space of the road and bridge industry is under pressure, and the competition is becoming increasingly fierce. In the future, there are five main trends in the development of the road and bridge industry: First, industrial chain extension and related diversification are effective ways to deal with growth bottlenecks. The upstream and downstream expansion of the industrial chain includes the mining and manufacturing of upstream raw materials, downstream real estate, operation, and EPC construction general contracting. The related diversified development mainly extends to rail transit, water conservancy, environmental protection, maintenance engineering and other fields. Second, the concentration of the industry continues to increase, and market competition is further intensified. The market concentration of the construction industry is low and there are many players. However, with the further deepening of the marketization of the industry and the deterioration of the international environment, large and medium-sized enterprises such as central enterprises and provincial state-owned enterprises have begun to enter the city to seize the regional market and hinder the industry from breaking through. The influencing factors of geographical restrictions have been continuously weakened, the cross-regional competition of the industry has become increasingly significant, and the market concentration is expected to continue to increase. Third, the growth of the eastern market space is limited, and the western market has more room for development. With the low density of road network in the western region and the promotion of relevant policy factors such as the large-scale development of the western region and "Belt and Road Initiative", the investment in infrastructure construction in the western region is gradually strengthening and has become a key area for domestic highway construction. Fourth, intelligent transportation has become a new bright spot in the field of highway construction. Driven by technologies such as ultra-high-speed wireless local area network and 5G mobile communication, smart transportation will be greatly developed in the future. Fifth, the qualification reform promotes the road and bridge enterprises to enhance the degree of marketization and comprehensive strength. In March 2020, the Measures for the Administration of Engineering Cost Consulting Enterprises and the Measures for the Administration of Registered Cost Engineers proposed to lower the qualification threshold for cost enterprises. In July 2020, the Ministry of Housing and Construction issued the Framework of Qualification Standards for Construction Engineering Enterprises (Draft for Comments), proposing to significantly reduce the qualification categories and grades of enterprises. Lowering the entry threshold for the construction industry will further promote road and bridge enterprises to change the traditional concept of "waiting and relying on, really improve the construction ability, technical strength and management ability.
1. Smoke from the smoothing machine when working Check the trowel machine to check whether there is too much oil. If there is too much oil, release part of it. It can also be that the piston is broken and severely worn and will burn the oil. If it is damaged, it needs to be replaced in time. Check the engine. If the engine is not faulty, it may also be that there are too many impurities in the oil. The oil is very important. Try to choose high-quality oil. When buying, you must pay attention to prevent buying inferior fake oil. 2. How to level the chassis screws of the smoothing machine First replace 4 new blades and put the trowel in a particularly flat place. Then remove the shift fork and visually inspect whether the heights of the four screws are consistent. If conditions permit, measure them with a ruler. If the heights are inconsistent, adjust them to be consistent. When the gland is gently shaken, if there is no shaking, the debugging is proved successful. Put some butter on the top of the screw to prevent wear. 3. The wiping machine always stalls Observe whether the oil level is normal and whether the oil is too little. Some machines have their own oil protection system, which will automatically turn off when there is a shortage of oil. There is also the fact that after the remote flameout switch and the flameout switch of the machine are disconnected one by one, if the flameout phenomenon does not occur again, it means that there is grounding in that part. Just check and eliminate it carefully. 4. The engine of the trowel is normal, but the trowel is not moved. If there is no problem with the engine, it is caused by the wrong belt type or the belt is too long. If there is still an abnormality, it can be handled by changing a clutch. 5. The gasoline polish machine was blistered First clean the carburetor, let the spark plug be removed to see if there is water in the cylinder head. If there is water, pull the disk several times to drain the water. Try again after changing the oil to see if it is normal. 6. The smoothing machine cannot rotate Reason: The blade may be deformed; the motor bearing is broken; the motor bracket is not fixed well; there is a problem in use.
Method of polishing grinding: Grinding is the grinding tool (hereinafter referred to as the grinding tool) surface embedded abrasive or coated abrasive and add lubricant, under certain pressure, the tool and the grinding tool contact and do relative movement, through the abrasive action, from the workpiece surface cut a layer of very thin chip, so that the workpiece has a precise size, accurate geometry and high surface roughness. Its essence is to use free abrasive particles to carry out micro-cutting including physical and chemical comprehensive effects on the surface of the workpiece through the grinding tool. Features:(1) In mechanical grinding, the machine tool-tool-workpiece system is in an elastic floating state. (2) The workpiece to be ground is not subject to any force and is therefore in a free state. (3) The speed of the grinding movement is usually below 30 m/min, which is about 1% of the grinding speed. (4) When grinding, only a very thin layer of material can be cut off, so the heat generated is less, the processing deformation is small, and the surface deterioration layer is also thin. (5) There is residual compressive stress on the grinding surface, which is beneficial to improve the fatigue strength of the workpiece surface. (6) The operation is simple and generally does not require complicated and expensive equipment. (7) Adaptability is good. (8) grinding can obtain very low surface roughness. 1. Fluid polishing Fluid polishing is to rely on high-speed flow of liquid and abrasive particles to wash the surface of the workpiece to achieve the purpose of polishing. Commonly used methods are: abrasive jet processing, liquid jet processing, fluid power grinding. Fluid power grinding is driven by hydraulic pressure, The liquid medium carrying the abrasive particles is caused to flow back and forth at high speed over the surface of the workpiece. The medium mainly uses special compounds with good flowability at lower pressure. (polymer-like substance) and mixed with abrasive, abrasive can be used silicon carbide powder. 2. Mechanical polishing Mechanical polishing is a method of polishing a smooth surface by cutting and plastic deformation of the surface of the material to remove the convex part after polishing, Generally use oilstone, wool wheel, sandpaper, etc., mainly manual operation, special parts such as the surface of the rotary body, Auxiliary tools such as turntables can be used, and the method of super-lapping can be used for high surface quality requirements. Super lapping is a special abrasive tool, In the polishing liquid containing abrasives, it is tightly pressed on the surface of the workpiece to be processed for high-speed rotating motion. Using this technology, the surface roughness of Ra0.008 μm can be achieved, which is the highest among various polishing methods. Optical lens molds often use this method. 3. Ultrasonic polishing The workpiece is placed in the abrasive suspension and placed together in the ultrasonic field, relying on the oscillation of the ultrasonic, The abrasive is ground and polished on the surface of the workpiece. Ultrasonic machining macro force is small, will not cause deformation of the workpiece, but tooling production and installation is difficult. Ultrasonic machining can be combined with chemical or electrochemical methods. On the basis of solution corrosion and electrolysis, ultrasonic vibration is applied to stir the solution, The dissolution products on the surface of the workpiece are separated, and the corrosion or electrolyte near the surface is uniform; Ultrasonic cavitation in the liquid can also inhibit the corrosion process, conducive to surface brightening. 4. Electrolytic polishing The basic principle of electrolytic polishing is the same as chemical polishing, that is, by selectively dissolving the small protruding parts of the surface of the material, Make the surface smooth. Compared with chemical polishing, the effect of cathode reaction can be eliminated, and the effect is better. The electrochemical polishing process is divided into two steps: (1) Macroscopic leveling dissolution products diffuse into the electrolyte, and the geometric roughness of the material surface decreases, Ra> 1μm. (2) micro light level anode polarization, surface brightness, Ra <1μm. 5. Fluid polishing Fluid polishing is to rely on high-speed flow of liquid and abrasive particles to wash the surface of the workpiece to achieve the purpose of polishing. Commonly used methods are: abrasive jet processing, liquid jet processing, fluid power grinding. Fluid power grinding is driven by hydraulic pressure, The liquid medium carrying the abrasive particles is caused to flow back and forth at high speed over the surface of the workpiece. The medium is mainly made of special compounds (polymer-like substances) with good flowability at lower pressure and mixed with abrasives, The abrasive may use silicon carbide powder. 6. Chemical polishing Chemical polishing is to make the surface of the material in the chemical medium micro convex part of the concave part of the preferential dissolution, A smooth surface is thus obtained. The main advantage of this method is that it does not require complex equipment and can polish workpieces with complex shapes, Many workpieces can be polished at the same time with high efficiency. The core problem of chemical polishing is the preparation of polishing solution. Surface roughness obtained by chemical polishing Generally, it is several 10 μm. 7. Magnetic grinding and polishing Magnetic grinding and polishing is the use of magnetic abrasive under the action of a magnetic field to form an abrasive brush to grind the workpiece. This method has high processing efficiency, Good quality, easy control of processing conditions, good working conditions. With suitable abrasives, the surface roughness can reach Ra0.1 μm. The polishing in plastic mold processing is very different from the surface polishing required in other industries, Strictly speaking, the polishing of the mold should be called mirror processing. It not only has the very high request to the polishing itself but also to the surface flatness, There are also high standards for smoothness and geometric accuracy. Surface polishing is generally only required to obtain a bright surface. The standard of mirror processing is divided into four levels: AO = Ra0.008μm, A1 = Ra0.016μm, A3 = Ra0.032μm, A4 = Ra0.063 μm, due to electrolytic polishing, fluid polishing and other methods are difficult to accurately control the geometric accuracy of the part, The surface quality of chemical polishing, ultrasonic polishing, magnetic grinding polishing and other methods can not meet the requirements, so the mirror processing of precision molds Or mainly mechanical polishing.
Product Features: 1. Imported switch with overload protection has the function of phase loss and leakage protection. 2. Equipped with vacuum cleaner connection device to provide dust-free working environment. 3, fast speed, can work for a long time, high grinding efficiency. 4, can add 12kg of weight iron, can effectively polish the old epoxy floor. 5, can adjust the ground grinding depth. 6. There are four kinds of diamond grinding discs for selection: extra coarse, coarse, medium and fine. The extra coarse disc is especially suitable for removing the old epoxy ground. 7, you can choose the combination of cheap grinding block. 8. The damping device designed with aviation rubber material is flexible and durable.
The situation is as follows: 1. The ground is very uneven, the resistance of the grinding disc is large, and the motor load is too heavy. 2. If this situation occurs when the new machine is used for the first time, it means that the governor has been adjusted to the fastest speed position, or the new grinding plate (block) Not open rough pressure on the rough hard surface, resulting in a large disc resistance, motor load is too heavy. 3. If the gearbox is repaired and the machine is initially tested like this, it may be that the gear assembly is not smooth and too tight, causing the grinding disc to rotate manually. It is not smooth, or the motor shaft and the center gear are not concentric after the motor is fixed during assembly, that is, the rotation is not concentric, which makes the electricity The rotation of the rotor is blocked and Caton occurs. Corresponding solution: 1, the machine up, move to a relatively flat ground area grinding, and then slowly cut into the uneven ground area, or use Other small grinding disc machinery will ground the rough surface of the potholes slightly smooth, and then use the machine to grind. 2. Roughen the grinding piece (block) on the cement floor. Press down on the armrest and raise the starter of the machine (make the grinding disc slightly off the ground). The machine (grinding disc) can be slowly landed. 3. Reassemble the gear or reassemble the motor to make the gear and the grinding disc rotate smoothly. After inserting the motor shaft into the central gear Concentric, suspend the motor and the box and energize the motor to start the motor, so that the motor, gear and grinding disc rotate smoothly. After shutdown, hand Rotate the grinding disc smoothly.
Meatengqi multifunctional ground grinding machine can be used for grinding concrete ground, with light and flexible operation, grinding and sucking Body, save manpower, grinding and vacuuming into one, while polishing while vacuuming, providing a good dust-free polishing environment. If equipped with sandpaper grinding, can also be polished epoxy putty layer; at the same time on the epoxy putty layer wear small, improve Epoxy floor flatness, with resin drive disc and resin grinding, can be used for liquid hardener construction Sanding and polishing. Use a rubber connector to connect the grinding disc to completely avoid the shock caused by mechanical wear after the equipment has been used for a period of time. movement phenomenon.