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Method of polishing and grinding

Release time:

2023-10-12 09:23

method of polishing grinding:

Grinding is the grinding tool (hereinafter referred to as the grinding tool) surface embedded abrasive or coated abrasive and add lubricant, under certain pressure, the tool and the grinding tool contact and do relative movement, through the abrasive action, from the workpiece surface cut a layer of very thin chip, so that the workpiece has a precise size, accurate geometry and high surface roughness. Its essence is to use free abrasive particles to carry out micro-cutting including physical and chemical comprehensive effects on the surface of the workpiece through the grinding tool.
Features:(1) In mechanical grinding, the machine tool-tool-workpiece system is in an elastic floating state.
(2) The workpiece to be ground is not subject to any force and is therefore in a free state.
(3) The speed of the grinding movement is usually below 30 m/min, which is about 1% of the grinding speed.
(4) When grinding, only a very thin layer of material can be cut off, so the heat generated is less, the processing deformation is small, and the surface deterioration layer is also thin.
(5) There is residual compressive stress on the grinding surface, which is beneficial to improve the fatigue strength of the workpiece surface.
(6) The operation is simple and generally does not require complicated and expensive equipment.
(7) Adaptability is good.
(8) grinding can obtain very low surface roughness.







1. Fluid polishing

Fluid polishing is to rely on high-speed flow of liquid and abrasive particles to wash the surface of the workpiece to achieve the purpose of polishing.

Commonly used methods are: abrasive jet processing, liquid jet processing, fluid power grinding. Fluid power grinding is driven by hydraulic pressure,

The liquid medium carrying the abrasive particles is caused to flow back and forth at high speed over the surface of the workpiece. The medium mainly uses special compounds with good flowability at lower pressure.

(polymer-like substance) and mixed with abrasive, abrasive can be used silicon carbide powder.

2. Mechanical polishing

Mechanical polishing is a method of polishing a smooth surface by cutting and plastic deformation of the surface of the material to remove the convex part after polishing,

Generally use oilstone, wool wheel, sandpaper, etc., mainly manual operation, special parts such as the surface of the rotary body,

Auxiliary tools such as turntables can be used, and the method of super-lapping can be used for high surface quality requirements. Super lapping is a special abrasive tool,

In the polishing liquid containing abrasives, it is tightly pressed on the surface of the workpiece to be processed for high-speed rotating motion.

Using this technology, the surface roughness of Ra0.008 μm can be achieved, which is the highest among various polishing methods.

Optical lens molds often use this method.

3. Ultrasonic polishing

The workpiece is placed in the abrasive suspension and placed together in the ultrasonic field, relying on the oscillation of the ultrasonic,

The abrasive is ground and polished on the surface of the workpiece. Ultrasonic machining macro force is small, will not cause deformation of the workpiece, but tooling production and installation is difficult.

Ultrasonic machining can be combined with chemical or electrochemical methods. On the basis of solution corrosion and electrolysis, ultrasonic vibration is applied to stir the solution,

The dissolution products on the surface of the workpiece are separated, and the corrosion or electrolyte near the surface is uniform;

Ultrasonic cavitation in the liquid can also inhibit the corrosion process, conducive to surface brightening.

4. Electrolytic polishing
The basic principle of electrolytic polishing is the same as chemical polishing, that is, by selectively dissolving the small protruding parts of the surface of the material,

Make the surface smooth. Compared with chemical polishing, the effect of cathode reaction can be eliminated, and the effect is better. The electrochemical polishing process is divided into two steps:

(1) Macroscopic leveling dissolution products diffuse into the electrolyte, and the geometric roughness of the material surface decreases, Ra> 1μm.

(2) micro light level anode polarization, surface brightness, Ra <1μm.

5. Fluid polishing

Fluid polishing is to rely on high-speed flow of liquid and abrasive particles to wash the surface of the workpiece to achieve the purpose of polishing.

Commonly used methods are: abrasive jet processing, liquid jet processing, fluid power grinding. Fluid power grinding is driven by hydraulic pressure,

The liquid medium carrying the abrasive particles is caused to flow back and forth at high speed over the surface of the workpiece.

The medium is mainly made of special compounds (polymer-like substances) with good flowability at lower pressure and mixed with abrasives,

The abrasive may use silicon carbide powder.

6. Chemical polishing

Chemical polishing is to make the surface of the material in the chemical medium micro convex part of the concave part of the preferential dissolution,

A smooth surface is thus obtained. The main advantage of this method is that it does not require complex equipment and can polish workpieces with complex shapes,

Many workpieces can be polished at the same time with high efficiency. The core problem of chemical polishing is the preparation of polishing solution. Surface roughness obtained by chemical polishing

Generally, it is several 10 μm.

7. Magnetic grinding and polishing

Magnetic grinding and polishing is the use of magnetic abrasive under the action of a magnetic field to form an abrasive brush to grind the workpiece. This method has high processing efficiency,

Good quality, easy control of processing conditions, good working conditions. With suitable abrasives, the surface roughness can reach Ra0.1 μm.

The polishing in plastic mold processing is very different from the surface polishing required in other industries,

Strictly speaking, the polishing of the mold should be called mirror processing. It not only has the very high request to the polishing itself but also to the surface flatness,

There are also high standards for smoothness and geometric accuracy. Surface polishing is generally only required to obtain a bright surface.

The standard of mirror processing is divided into four levels: AO = Ra0.008μm, A1 = Ra0.016μm, A3 = Ra0.032μm,

A4 = Ra0.063 μm, due to electrolytic polishing, fluid polishing and other methods are difficult to accurately control the geometric accuracy of the part,

The surface quality of chemical polishing, ultrasonic polishing, magnetic grinding polishing and other methods can not meet the requirements, so the mirror processing of precision molds

Or mainly mechanical polishing.